Int J Biol Macromol. February 26, 2022: S0141-8130(22)00389-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.02.137. Online ahead of print.
Thanks to their unique attributes, such as good sensitivity, selectivity, high surface-to-volume ratio and versatile optical and electronic properties, fluorescence-based bioprobes have been used to create highly sensitive nanobiosensors to detect various biological agents. and chemicals. These sensors are superior to other analytical instrumentation techniques such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis because they are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and more economical, operational and cost effective. Moreover, several reports have also highlighted their application in the early detection of biomarkers associated with drug-induced organ damage such as liver, kidney or lung. In the present work, we have comprehensively reviewed electrochemical sensors that use NMs (NPs/colloids or quantum dots, carbon dots or nanoscale metal-organic frameworks, etc.) to detect a variety of biological macromolecules based on fluorescent emission spectra. Also, the most important mechanisms and methods for detecting amino acids, proteins, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, vitamins, ions, metals and electrolytes, blood gases , drugs (i.e. anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics), toxins, alkaloids, antioxidants, cancer biomarkers, urinary metabolites (i.e. urea, uric acid and creatinine) and pathogenic microorganisms were described and compared in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. Overall, the small dimensions and capability of these nanosensors for sensitive, label-free and real-time detection of chemical, biological and pharmaceutical agents could be used in array screening and in vitro or in vivo diagnostics. Although fluorescent nanoprobes are widely used to determine biological macromolecules, they unfortunately present many challenges and limitations. Efforts should be made to minimize these limitations in the use of these nanobiosensors by emphasizing their commercial developments. We believe the current review can foster the wider incorporation of nanomedicine and will be of particular interest to researchers working in fluorescence technology, materials chemistry, coordination polymers, and related research areas.