Hydrogels pave the way for high-energy supercapacitors

In a study published in the Journal of Alloys and Compounds, a group of researchers synthesized Ti3VS2[email protected] heterostructure by uniformly depositing NiO nanosheets on a Ti3VS2Substrate TX then incorporation of the composite into a microporous hydrogel using low temperature graphene oxide (GO).

Study: Hierarchical 3D [email protected] Graphene oxide heterostructure hydrogel as self-contained electrodes for high performance supercapacitor. Image Credit: Jose M. Peral Photography / Shutterstock.com

The resulting hierarchical 3D Ti3VS2[email protected] is due to the synergistic impact between each component and the 3D porous bonded structure. Nanostructured RGO hydrogel combines the advantages of being extremely conductive and exceptional pseudo-capacitive and dramatically reduces Ti3VS2[email protected] clustering and increases the use of the surface.

Supercapacitors: sustainable energy resources

In this world of advancements and technological developments where energy storage and energy, in particular, are becoming a nuance due to the energy crisis, supercapacitors have played a vital role in many developments and advancements.

They are easily applicable to integrate sustainable energy resources and have many applications due to their fast charging and discharging, longer life and good rate stability. This property leads to two different categories of supercapacitors which are double layer capacitors which are used electrochemically (EDLC) and the other is pseudocapacitors.

EDL capacitors are those in which the charge is stored at the electrodes and in the electrolytic interface via rapid ionic adsorption or desorption treatment. The second, known as pseudocapacitors, involves the storage of energy by a faradic process, involving a faster reversible reaction which is redox acting on both the surface and the material per se. Supercapacitors can further be divided into two main categories based on electrode materials, symmetrical and asymmetric.

Balanced supercapacitors generally refer to devices with the same electrode materials which are also based on the same charge storage mechanism. On the other hand, asymmetric supercapacitors are made of two different electrode materials depending on different charge storage mechanisms.

MXenes as a promising candidate for energy applications

Recent developments have established a two-dimensional transition metal known as MXenes. These nanomaterials have a range of excellent properties such as higher redox activity, high metallic conductivity, versatile surface chemistry and excellent mechanically stable properties.

MXenes have many applications in electrocatalysis, electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic interface shielding, etc. Generally speaking, MXenes are the production of a material that involves etching which is done selectively using acidic solutions where a transition metal, the element used as a substrate, and either carbon or nitrogen are used by combining to form a MAX phase.

MXene Limitations

MXene has limitations which are mainly related to the functional groups on the surface and the defects on the surfaces formed due to the etching process, which has a negative influence on the energy storage mechanisms.

3d hierarchical ti3VS2[email protected] Heterostructures

To avoid divergences in MXenes, a more recent process is introduced where the existence of functional groups and defects can be easily converted to other processes such as in situ growth, then the second phase which is derived is combined with Ti3VS2TX using chemical bonds leading to the formation of synergistic heterostructures with that of higher structural stability.

Also, to stop the auto-stacking of 2D MXenes, the integration of Ti3VS2TX @NiO heterostructures in a 3D interconnected porous network is a likely solution. The Sol-Gel method is used because it is an easier and less expensive process than the others, but it has its downside when looking at the difficulty with which the crosslinks of the anisotropic inner sheets are assembled.

Research findings and conclusion

For the first time, the Ti structured in 3D3VS2[email protected] The heterostructure hydrogel has been successfully produced using an efficient multistep technique and used as stand-alone SCs electrodes.

This heterostructure allows an adequate interaction between the two Ti3VS2TX and NiO nanosheets, resulting in a strong bond between high throughput Ti3VS2TX and high capacity.

NiO can not only provide many active sites for efficient use of the pseudocapacity during the rapid electrochemical reaction, but also reduce the permeation length of the electrolyte. In addition, the 3D mesoporous design effectively avoids Ti3VS2Agglomeration of TX @NiO heterostructure, resulting in rapid ion / electron transport mechanism and large electroactive surface area, greatly improving electrochemical performance.

This research paves the way for improving the overall properties of Ti3VS2TX-based materials, implying that heterostructured hydrogels are viable options for high-energy SCs.

Continue Reading: How MXene Nanomaterials Unlock Future Nanotechnology

The references

Chen, W. et al. (2022). 3D hierarchical [email protected] Graphene oxide heterostructure hydrogel as self-contained electrodes for high performance supercapacitor. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925838822000056

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